Due to their components, Smart Labels are a lot more costly than Barcodes. Barcodes are only ink on paper, and costs are minimal. The cost of a chipped active tag may be more than US$2, with a chipped passive tag ?costing around US$ 1. However, chipless tags may cost only a few US cents. ??(CrossID might cost a fraction of a cent) Emerging chipless tags provide an ?opportunity to address requirements that may not need the high ranges or data ?capacities of chipped tags, but in which the line-of-sight requirement of conventional ?barcodes is not practical, for example in hidden anti-counterfeit tags.?